[26], In a research study, extracts from the seeds of the common alder have been found to be active against all the eight pathogenic bacteria against which they were tested, which included Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). [22] Alpine farmers are said to use the leaves to alleviate rheumatism by placing a heated bag full of leaves on the affected areas. Alder is the food plant for the caterpillars of several moths including the alder kitten, pebble hook-tip, the autumnal and the blue-bordered carpet moth. But several pests can cause significant damage. : look for leaf margins We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. It is naturalised in the Azores. They can completely defoliate (strip) small trees in the spring, often just leaving the leaf veins in place. Possible Confusion . [26], Chemical constituents of Alnus glutinosa include hirsutanonol, oregonin, genkwanin,[28] rhododendrin {3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-l-methylpropyl-β-D-glucopyranoside} and glutinic acid (2,3-pentadienedioic acid). There are over 400 species of sawfly in the UK so most tree species are susceptible to defoliation at some point in their lives. https://www.alamy.com/colorful-alder-tree-leaves-on-pastel-pink-background-autumn-nature-inspiration-image218217039.html. Male catkins are pendulous, measuring 2–6cm, and turn yellow. Species that tolerate wetter conditions include alder, alder buckthorn and willow. It tolerates a range of soil types and grows best at a pH of between 5.5 and 7.2. Alder is deciduous, and the new leaves open out in April. It is a pioneer species, colonising vacant land and forming mixed forests as other trees appear in its wake. Hazel (Corylus avellana). Flowers are on catkins which appear between February and April. The small, rounded fruits are cone-like and the seeds are dispersed by wind and water. In Asia its range includes Turkey, Iran and Kazakhstan, and in Africa it is found in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Here you'll find a selection of alder leaves. This is the causal agent of phytophthora disease of alder which is causing extensive mortality of the trees in some parts of Europe. Credit: Andrew D. Liston / Senckenberg German Entomological Institute. https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-grey-alder-gray-alder-alnus-incana-twig-with-fruit-studio-picture-33144880.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-black-alder-european-alder-or-common-alder-tree-alnus-glutinosa-betulaceae-20126342.html, https://www.alamy.com/alder-tree-springtime-image258751613.html, https://www.alamy.com/realistic-alder-tree-leaves-in-changing-fall-colors-image328934197.html, https://www.alamy.com/black-alder-alnus-glutinosa-image61340643.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-grau-erle-grauerle-erle-alnus-incana-grey-alder-gray-alder-aulne-blanc-125667944.html, Yellow broken alder leaf in brook. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. If this is the case it is important to know which tree species is affected because a lot of diseases are specific to certain trees. Wet and swampy, alder woods, or carrs, were thought to have a mysterious atmosphere. As the wood is soft, flexible and somewhat light, it can be easily worked as well as split. There are many disease-causing pathogens of trees. They can also be found in the Pacific Northwest. [31], Black alder defies harsh conditions in the Swedish archipelago, Species of flowering plant in the birch family Betulaceae, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "A review of the characteristics of black alder (, "Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus, "Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and General Toxicity of, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alnus_glutinosa&oldid=982919868, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 05:12. This is a very noticeable beetle because it has a beautiful metallic blue body. Alder roots make the perfect nest sites for otters. The bark of young trees is smooth, glossy and greenish-brown while in older trees it is dark grey and fissured. The branches are smooth and somewhat sticky, being scattered with resinous warts. When it’s cut, the pale wood turns a deep orange, giving the impression of bleeding. They have a glossy dark green upper surface and paler green underside with rusty-brown hairs in the angles of the veins. It supplies high quality charcoal. It thrives in wet locations where its association with the bacterium Frankia alni enables it to grow in poor quality soils. [15] It shades the water of rivers and streams, moderating the water temperature, and this benefits fish which also find safety among its exposed roots in times of flood. The Alder leaf is rounded to ovate roundish and 6 – 12 cm (2.4 – 4.7 in) long and broad. [5], The leaves of the common alder are short-stalked, rounded, up to 10 cm (4 in) long with a slightly wedge-shaped base and a wavy, serrated margin. This species will not be described further. - and only red alder is abundant. Leaves form the natural diet for many woodland creatures and, for the most part, a little damage does the tree no harm at all, particularly if the tree is healthy and vigorous. The tree has a light coloured bark and the branches are quite brittle. [15] Taphrina alni is a fungal plant pathogen that causes alder tongue gall, a chemically induced distortion of female catkins. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. They are up to 10 cm. The leaves have shallow irregular teeth and remain on the tree quite late in autumn. Traditionally, alder branches were cut and placed in cupboards to deter woodworm from laying eggs in the cupboard timber. The autumn sun lights up the yellow leaves of a Grey Alder tree (Alnus incana). https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-grey-alder-gray-elder-alnus-incana-twig-with-leaves-172007453.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-dusky-birch-sawfly-craesus-latitarsus-larvae-on-the-leaves-on-a-young-74298952.html. Another commonly reported leaf-feeder is alder leaf beetle (Agelastica alni). The seeds are flattened reddish-brown nuts edged with webbing filled with pockets of air. aesculi. key mystery VAT No. It has short-stalked rounded leaves and separate male and female flower in the form of catkins. Cherry trees (Prunus species) can also get bleeding trunk cankers caused by similar bacteria leading to sunken, dead patches of bark and small holes in leaves. https://www.alamy.com/green-female-catkin-cones-fruits-and-leaves-of-the-common-alder-alnus-glutinosa-once-used-as-a-medicinal-plant-in-herbal-remedies-image263040385.html. Native species that can tolerate slightly drier soil include oak, Scots pine, yew, juniper, whitebeam and goat willow. Once used as a medicinal plant in herbal remedies. Alder tree in early summer with vibrant green leaves contrasting sharply with blue sky. not rolled under. Alder bark can also be used with iron sulphate to create a black dye which can substitute for the use of sumach or galls. These look like caterpillars but are slightly different because they develop into flies instead of butterflies. When exposed, the reddish, mottled inner bark contrasts with the creamy colour of healthy bark. [29], Pollen from the common alder, along with that from birch and hazel, is one of the main sources of tree pollen allergy. Find out how trees lock up carbon and how many we need to reach the UK's carbon net zero target by 2050. To do this, push a long screwdriver into the ground to get an idea of how wet the soil is below the surface. red, white, Sitka, and thinleaf, but only two commonly reach tree size Alder can live to approximately 60 years. The piles beneath the Rialto in Venice, and the foundations of several medieval cathedrals are made of alder. A list of the most important pests and diseases threatening the UK's trees with top spotting tips. One of the most noticeable pests is horse chestnut leaf miner. © Jost Benning  | Imprint | jowaca digital solutions. Alders like moist surroundings 294344) and in Scotland (No. This enables them to float for about a month which allows the seed to disperse widely. while still green. Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder, European black alder, or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. This pathogen blocks the water transport systems of trees leading to black, bleeding cankers on tree trunks and wilting or dying leaves or needles. [16], The common alder is susceptible to Phytophthora alni, a recently evolved species of oomycete plant pathogen probably of hybrid origin. The leaves are roundish and the flowers are brown. Alder coppices well and the wood makes excellent charcoal and gunpowder. Test the soil and act accordingly. Credit: Ana Perez Sierra / Forest Research. If a tree in your care has severe symptoms of disease then there are online resources to help in the identification of the issue. Sweden. [19] The tree is also a host to a variety of mosses and lichens which particularly flourish in the humid moist environment of streamside trees. It is thought that the female woodworm lays eggs in alder in preference to other wood. Our trees have spent their whole lives in the UK, from seed to sapling. Most are fungi but there are also bacterial and viral diseases. Pruning at any other time of the year leaves the wounds open to infection. Alder is monoecious, which means that both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. It can emerge in large numbers in the spring and start to feed on common alder (Alnus glutinosa) and occasionally on other deciduous trees such as beech (Fagus sylvatica), hazel (Corylus avellana) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). that are tightly rolled under. During the autumn they become dark brown to black in colour, hard, somewhat woody, and superficially similar to small conifer cones. The egg-shaped leaves have serrated edges and distinct veins. Soft and porous, alder wood is only durable if kept wet, and its value to humans is down to its ability to withstand rotting in water. Grey Alder, Gray Alder (Alnus incana), twig with leaves and fruit, studio picture. Cherry tree leaves can look brown and wilted, often caused by two fungi known as cherry leaf scorch and cherry leaf spot.