Later on David Easton further developed the concept of a political system. TOS4. It takes into account issues such as justice, liberty, equality, democracy, etc. F. Hegel, Karl Marx, and John Swan Mill all deal with the perennial questions of justice, equality, freedom, why should a citizen obey the State ?, is man good or evil by nature?
Most of the political phenomena are unquantifiable.
The traditional approaches include philosophical, historical and institutional approaches while the modern approaches include behavioural approach, post-behavioural approach, systems approach, structural-functional approach, communication approach, etc. It is also necessary to stress the enormously growing importance of sociological study to the study of the comparative method. 140 Science Drive 208 Gross Hall Campus Box 90204 Durham, NC 27708 T: (919) 660-4300 F: (919) 660-4330
Then, he beautifully sunrise up the contribution of the comparative method to the development of Political Science itself. This approach is known as deductive or philosophical approach. Thus with the help of different approaches, political science can be systematically studied. Do they place special interests before the public good ? Man, according to Graham Wallas, is hardly rational in his behavior.
This approach is not strictly realistic because a political philosopher may lose sight of actual facts and may roam in darkness. Sidgwick’ s arguments are quite convincing. We ,cannot take a portion of the community in our hand as the King of Brobdigang took Gulliver, view it in different aspects and place it in different positions in order to solve social problems and satisfy our speculative curiosity.”, Experiments in Physical Sciences can be tried over and over again till the final and required result is obtained. Moreover, what We observe is a comparison of contemporary political institutions. This has been criticized for its dependence on techniques and methods ignoring the subject matter. The comparative study succeeds? In order to study it in a systematic and scientific manner, some approaches are usually followed.
An approach is the way of looking at a political phenomenon and then explaining it. “Rawls’s ‘Political’ Philosophy and American Democracy.” American Political Science Review 87 (02): 348–59.
People do net stop with analysis.
This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Q no. In an article published in 1957, An approach to the Analysis of Political System’s Easton suggested that a solution to the problem of comparing governments could be found by examining political life in terms of a system receiving certain inputs from the society and converting them into outputs affecting the society. Therefore, post-behaviouralists made an effort to make Political Science relevant to the society.
list out the differences between Behaviouralism and Post- behaviouralism. Though none can be completely objective, it is the desideratum and we must strive for as best as we can. 2.
Thus, post-behaviouralists may be regarded as the reform movement within behaviouralism.
Appeal to history, therefore, is an invaluable aid to students of Political Science.
The historical method supplements the experimental method Gilchrist remarks, “The source of experiments of Political Science is history they rest on observation and experience. Comparison is most advantageous between counties and peoples with more of less similar conditions, as, for example, India and Pakistan.
These methods start with certain facts which are either historical in their character or are the result of experiment, comparison or observation and, then, certain conclusions regarding the political phenomena are arrived at. A report by a research panel in Comparative Government was published in 1944. This method has been made use of by Herbert Spencer. The environment generates demands from different sections of the society such as demand for reservation in the matter of employment for certain groups, demand for better working conditions or minimum wages, demand for better transportation facilities, demand for better health facilities, etc.. It is true that social conditions cannot be artificially created and experiments as in the physical sciences are not possible in Political Science.
In recent times, the approach of observation is becoming more popular. Pingback: Methodology of political science – Chaotic Website!
Find out three points of similarities between Systems Approach and Structural Functional Approach.
We read the works of all these political thinkers because they provide the best starting point for the study of the moral aspects of political life. The Department of Political Science, Philosophy and Geography studies the political process, concepts relating to the human condition, & geographical factors that influence social and economic systems.
Moreover, the researcher being a human being is not always value neutral as believed by the behaviouralists.
Taking Easton analysis as a starting point, Gabriel Almond looked for the functions which could be included among the inputs and outputs of all political system Looking at the conversion process which takes place within the political System, he showed that six such functions could be separated First, on the input side, demands are. But the use of the comparative method needs great care. Dyarchy, for example, was experimented within the Provinces of India under the Government of India Act 1919, but its working soon disclosed the inherent defects in the system and it was discarded in the Provinces under the Government of India Act, 1935.
If we have hopes of establishing a general theory on an inductive basis, We can do so only through comparison. From Parson’s approach, Karl W. Deutsch derives a way of looking at “Politics” and the sub-systems of society in the context of these basic functions.
Nor must the institutions of government be regarded as eternal or petrified.
This field interprets, critiques, and constructs philosophical conceptions and arguments concerning morally appropriate and prudent standards and purposes for political actors and regimes. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3 Regularities, Verification, Techniques and Quantification. Therefore, a new thinking emerged among the behaviouralists for modifying behaviouralism. These principles are used as a groundwork for further investigation.
Though all political investigators have to agree that realisation of truth and achievement of human welfare should form the goal, there is no unanimity about the approaches to be followed to reach this end.
Both âdemandsâ and âsupportsâ constitute what Easton calls âinputs.â The political system receives theses inputs from the environment. The emergence of this approach can be traced back to the times of the Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle. All this amounts to experiments for the purpose of testing and improving. Every change in the form of government, every law passed, every war fought is an experiment in Political Science.” The study of Political Science, according to Laski, must be an effort to codify the results of experience in the history of states.” Political institutions grow instead of beings-made. Hitherto political thinkers had regarded man as a rational being and accepted this nature of man, as a dogmatic truth and consequently the starting point of their investigations. It emphasises that a political system should be based upon certain ideals and that it should strive to give shape to them. This new approach believed that mere use of sophisticated techniques and research tools would not solve the social and political problems of the world. Post-behaviourialism may be regarded as the reform movement within Behaviouralism. The UNESCO project, and the handbook it published, Contemporary Political Science, at least touched on the question. 1.
Philosophy deals with ideals and aspiration of a society.
Sir Thomas More, in his Utopia, conceived of that ideal State which is contrary to the facts of history and human nature. Through using different techniques and methods post-behaviouralists try to overcome the drawbacks of behaviouralism and make the study of Political Science more relevant to the society. Korsgaard, Christine M. 2009. This approach implies that principles should be deduced from a series of general truths or assumptions.