A third major IT Hub is under construction centred around Kozhikode known as Cyberpark. [13] An inscription among the sculpted decorations at the left end of the veranda mentions the completion of the cave by a local merchant or banker (a "setthi") named Bhutapala, from Vaijayanti. [182] However, the Kerala Municipality Act envisages a single-tier system for urban areas, with the institution of municipality designed to par with the Gram panchayat of the former system.

An important dedicatory inscription relates to Nahapana on the lintel to the right of the entrance of the Great Chaitya (Valukura is thought to be an ancient name for Karla Caves): Success!! Among the prominent athletes hailing from the state are P. T. Usha, Shiny Wilson and M.D. [15][16] Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the highest literacy rate, 96.2% in the 2018 literacy survey conducted by the National Statistical Office, India;[8] the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. [209] Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;[210] chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,[211]:5, 13 as was the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on". These points to a contemporaneity of the Karla Chaitya and the Nahapana vihara at Nasik, circa 70-120 CE. [95] They lost to Dutch at Quilon after 1661 and later, the Portuguese left south-western coast. (London, England: 1996) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999. Most of the caves are lenas, with the major exception being the Great Chaitya, Cave No. [197] [287] The ......a pious gift of Budharakhita's mother. [24] It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures,[414] defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people.

It is known that the Menons in the Malabar region of Kerala were originally strong believers of Jainism. This Great Chaitya cave, the largest in South Asia, was constructed between 50-70 CE,[9] and 120 CE, during the reign of the Western Satraps ruler Nahapana, who recorded the dedication of the cave in an inscription.

Other caves in the area are Bhaja Caves, Patan Buddhist Cave, Bedse Caves and Nasik Caves. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. [446] Most of the castes and communities in Kerala have rich collections of folk songs and ballads associated with a variety of themes; Vadakkan Pattukal (Northern Ballads), Thekkan pattukal (Southern Ballads), Vanchi pattukal (Boat Songs), Mappila Pattukal (Muslim songs) and Pallipattukal (Church songs) are a few of them.[449].

[234] Porotta and Biryani are also often found in restaurants in Kerala.

The effect is considerably heightened by the closely set thick columns that divide the aisles from the nave, as they suffice to prevent the boundary walls from ever being seen, and, as there are no openings in the walls, the view between the pillars is practically unlimited.
It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile states of Travancore-Cochin and Madras. [404], According to the first economic census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), 98.6% had a middle school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).

[138] The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts.

[21] At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology.

This article is about the Indian state. [68][384] There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel. [496][499] Football is one of the most widely played and watched sports with huge support for club and district level matches. Out of the 4,000 flowering plant species; 1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala, 900 are medicinal, and 159 are threatened. [22], Pillar carvings (8th pillar, right row). Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,[155]:6–7 much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling. [63] In the 4th century, the Knanaya or Southist Christians also migrated from Persia and lived alongside the early Syriac Christian community known as the St. Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. [332] Kerala has the lowest proportion of homeless people in rural India – 0.04%,[333] and the state is attempting to reach the goal of becoming the first "Zero Homeless State", in addition to its acclaimed "Zero landless project", with private organisations and the expatriate Malayali community funding projects for building homes for the homeless.

[160] These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinisation, and resource extraction.

[282] In October 2017, Kochi Metro was named the "Best Urban Mobility Project" in India by the Urban Development Ministry, as part of the Urban Mobility India (UMI) International Conference hosted by the ministry every year.[283]. [503][504] The Kerala state football team has won the Santhosh Trophy six times; in 1973, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2004, and 2018. Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state.

[204] The Central Coir Research Institute was established there in 1959.

Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period.
At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. [510] Greenfield International Stadium at located at Kariavattom in Thiruvananthapuram city, is India's first DBOT (design, build, operate and transfer) model outdoor stadium and it has hosted international cricket matches and international football matches including 2015 SAFF Championship. I rely on residents and small businesses like you, to help me fund my grassroots campaign.

Katz 200/* Religion */ 0; Koder 1973; Menachery 1998. This is the largest rock-cut chaitya in India, measuring 45 metres (148 ft) long and up to 14 metres (46 ft) high. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. [266][267] The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has threatened the Kerala state government that it will give higher priority to other states in highway development since political commitment to better highways in Kerala has been lacking.

[192] The state witnessed significant emigration during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s. [337]:5 Kerala's 13.3% prevalence of low birth weight is higher than that of many first world nations. [475] A majority of the breakfast foods in Kerala are made out of rice, in one form or the other (idli, dosa, puttu, appam, or idiyappam), tapioca preparations, or pulse-based vada. It also reported that approximately 150 to 200 liver transplants are conducted in the region's hospitals annually. The idol in the temple is taken out on a procession around the countryside atop this elephant. [48]:74[234][235][236][237][238] 80% of India's export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam. Padmanabhapuram Palace and the Mattancherry Palace are two nearby heritage sites. [335], Kerala is a pioneer in implementing the universal health care program. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. [409] Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional undergraduate (UG) degree-college programmes. [483] These elephants are mainly employed for the processions and displays associated with festivals celebrated all around the state.