Arable land (Latin: arabilis, "able to be plowed") is any land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops. Within the framework of the FAM research project the effects of the arthropod predator community, especially of spiders, were studied in experimental enclosures in arable fields with special reference to biological control (cf. We obtained results from different linear mixed-effects model analyses: treatment was fitted as a factor with three to four levels in model A and depicted into a year (2003 vs. 2017, according to Table 1), a soil history (− SH vs. + SH, according to Table 1) and a plant history contrast (− PH vs. + PH, according to Table 1) in models B, C and D with varying order of the contrasts. Learn how and when to remove this template message,,,,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 20:27. cultivating crops for bio-fuels, which generated good levels of income, but could lead to a reduction in areas used for coffee-growing. Fractal dimensions are estimated by Richardson's method (Mandelbrot, 1983) using the following equation: Recherchez des traductions de mots et de phrases dans des dictionnaires bilingues, fiables et exhaustifs et parcourez des milliards de traductions en ligne. Although attributes associated with organic foods may be difficult to identify by visual inspection alone, most consumers purchase organic products because of the perception that these products have unique and superior attributes compared to conventionally grown alternatives (Vindigni et al., 2002). Significant effects are indicated on top ***P ≤ 0.001, **P ≤ 0.01, *P ≤ 0.05, .P ≤ 0.1. Similarly, too much reliance on biofuels was, De même, trop de dépendance à l'égard des biocarburants n'est pas à recommander, Birth control-a key instrument in enabling women to have control over their own, lives-is a critical question for a country with 20 percent of the world's people, Le contrôle des naissances est essentiel pour que les femmes puissent avoir un certain contrôle sur leur propre existence ; c'est une question, particulièrement importante dans un pays qui compte 20 % de la population de la planète mais. As shown in fig. Other lands are any lands not arable or under permanent crops; this includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc. However, curves for a few species, such as Chionochoa macra (Spence, 1990) and Leptorhynchos squamathus (Lunt, 1995) are Deevey Type I, indicating a slow initial decline in viable seeds followed by a rapid decline. It is evident that in all treatments receiving FYM the ATP concentration was significantly increased which means that FYM had a beneficial effect on microbial biomass development and hence on the storage of potentially available phosphate. They compete with inorganic phosphate for adsorption sites and thus reduce the fixation of phosphate (Werner and Scherer, 1995). In the arable soils of the integrated farm reduced soil tillage led to the formation of a new Ap horizon with a lower thickness and higher humus content. These defenses include tolerance, exclusion, and detoxification. Signalez une publicité qui vous semble abusive. More than 10% of grasslands are estimated to be converted in Inner Mongolia (Wu et al., 2015), and the proportion is greater on the Loess Plateau and Northeastern China Plains. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. et jardins familiaux) et les autres superficies (superficie agricole non utilisée, superficie boisée et autres superficies). However, in very coarse textured or highly weathered soils where large quantities of plant biomass are harvested and the supply of micronutrients is low, the soil supply may need to be supplemented through the use of fertilizers in order to optimize crop yield and plant health. As a consequence of trees, frequent pastures, and intensive plant growth of selective crops (e.g., corn, soybean, wheat, cotton, Fig. Member growers of the IBOAA grow fresh produce on more than 6000 ha, based on organic principles; this is about 1.3 percent of the arable land in the country. Furthermore, plant species richness increased the number of emerging seedlings, but this effect was stronger in old compared to the newly sown plant communities (PH × SR in model C in Table 2 and Fig. Obviously, turnover of C compounds due to C respiration in this new Ap horizon is very intensive resulting in a relative N enrichment. Diminishing the numbers of phosphate groups bound to inositol decreases the possibility of phosphate adsorption and thus improves phosphate availability (Evans, 1985). Making non-arable land arable often involves digging new irrigation canals and new wells, aqueducts, desalination plants, planting trees for shade in the desert, hydroponics, fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer, pesticides, reverse osmosis water processors, PET film insulation or other insulation against heat and cold, digging ditches and hills for protection against the wind, and installing greenhouses with internal light and heat for protection against the cold outside and to provide light in cloudy areas. Old communities (+ SH + PH) had a lower realized plant species richness compared to young communities (PH in model C in Table 2 and Fig. Individual holdings consisted of many strips (a hundred or more was not unusual) theoretically scattered evenly through the fields, though in practice often irregularly distributed (see Figure 1).