1). Accessed: 2020-10-20. In both seagrass and unvegetated habitats, A. affinis showed little seasonal variation in mean values of abundance, thorax length and biomass (Table 1).In the seagrass habitat, lugworm abundance was greatest in autumn, compared with summer in the unvegetated habitat. Spawning is inhibited by temperatures above 13 or 15 °C (depending on study) (Bentley & Pacey, 1992). BRERC species records within last 15 years. Furthermore, the generally low population density of A. affinis in southern New Zealand (e.g. The breeding season. Data combined from seasonal sampling between summer 2007 and spring 2008. Laboratory experiments on growth of juvenile lugworms, Arenicola marina. Glasgow & London: Blackie. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/esxc9a accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-10-01. It eats 3.5 liters of sand per year.

2013). 2006; Goerlitz et al.

In the seagrass habitat, the distribution of A. affinis was significantly influenced by habitat variables, as revealed by multiple linear regression analysis (Table 3). Organic matter content was relatively low in both habitat types at 0.64 ± 0.13 % (SD) and 0.55 ± 0.09 % in the seagrass and unvegetated habitat, respectively. Washington D.C.: American Petroleum Institute. Arenicola defodiens sp. data). Sampling in the present study did not detect any lugworm >50 mm thorax length in Papanui Inlet, and it remains unknown whether individuals of this thorax length are absent from the A. affinis population in this inlet. In this habitat, below-ground biomass had a significant negative influence on abundance and biomass of A. affinis. In the laboratory, lugworms were anaesthetised for 3 h in 7 % magnesium chloride, fixed in 4 % formalin and subsequently preserved in 70 % ethanol.

Although overall abundances were similar in both habitats, lugworms in the seagrass habitat were smaller and had significantly lower biomass compared with lugworms in the unvegetated habitat (also resulting in markedly greater burrowing depth of A. affinis in the latter habitat). ), Very Weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec. St Andrews BioBlitz 2015. 2012). Eggs (oocytes) are retained in the females burrow (Bentley & Pacey, 1992). 2001). In these habitats, autogenic and allogenic ecosystem engineers generate complex networks of species interactions, mediated by the transformed sediment matrix (Reise 2002; Bouma et al. Results from one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in lugworm abundance between habitats, but significantly greater thorax length and biomass of A. affinis in unvegetated habitat compared to seagrass habitat (Table 2).

In Proceedings of a Symposium of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington, Virginia, 1976. Feeding, defaecation and burrow irrigation is cyclic. 427-431. Key taxa for marine environmental quality monitoring. After spawning males fasted for 2 days while females fasted for 3-4 weeks, presumably to avoid ingesting eggs and larvae (Farke & Berghuis, 1979). no mortality after 10 days at 7 µg Cu /g sediment, 23µg Zn/g and 9µg Cd /g; Mechanical lugworm dredgers have been used in the Dutch Wadden Sea where they removed 17-20 million lugworm/year. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 68:383–403, Bouma TJ, Olenin S, Reise K, Ysebaert T (2009) Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses. At the same time, seagrass below-ground biomass showed an increase from relatively low levels in the upper intertidal zone to the highest values at about 250–450-m distance from the shoreline.

they are immature (S. Goerlitz unpubl.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 28, 447-478. Fishermen use them as bait. These findings indicate that seagrass had a limiting effect on lugworm distribution in an otherwise suitable habitat. The findings indicate the potential of Z. muelleri to influence the spatial distribution of different size classes of A. affinis in seagrass-unvegetated habitat mosaic. Hayward, P.J. Synchronous spawning is associated with spring or neap tides suggesting a correlation with tidal or lunar cycles (Howie, 1959; Bentley & Pacey, 1992). The dinoflagellate bloom on the coast of south-west England, August to September 1978. The findings highlight negative feedback between antagonistic ecosystem engineers, with the potential of seagrass physical structures (autogenic engineering) to impact negatively on lugworm activity (allogenic engineering). The 'maturation factor' is released by a neurosecretory organ, the prostomium (Bentley & Pacey, 1992; Pacey 2000). (c) Wildscreen, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA). Given the potential of lugworms to adversely affect seagrass distribution (Phillipart 1994; Suykerbuyk et al. StatSoft, Tulsa, Suykerbuyk W, Bouma TJ, van der Heide T, Faust C, Govers LL, Giesen WBJT, de Jong DJ, van Katwijk MM (2012) Suppressing antagonistic bioengineering feedbacks doubles restoration success. 2).

Spawning usually occurs in late autumn or early winter but may occur in early spring (Pacey, 2000). Sperm maturation factor stimulates breakdown of sperm morulae and spawning. Prior to analysis, A. affinis abundance and biomass data were log(x+1)-transformed to improve residuals’ normality and homogeneity of variances (graphically assessed by probability plots and plots of residuals against predicted values, respectively, Quinn and Keough 2002).

(c) Gene Selkov, some rights reserved (CC BY). A comparison of abundance, body size and biomass of A. affinis between seagrass habitat (Papanui Inlet) and unvegetated habitat (Hoopers Inlet) showed little seasonal variation of these parameters in each habitat and relatively similar abundances between both habitats. ERIC NE Combined dataset to 2017. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 512-528. Manx Biological Recording Partnership, 2017. CAS  Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 907-924. compared with A. marina in north European tidal bays, Reise et al. 3). Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/vntgox accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25. Ivermectin was found to produce a 10 day LC, Suchanek (1993) reviewed the effects of oil spills on marine invertebrates and concluded that, in general, on soft sediment habitats, infaunal polychaetes, bivalves and amphipods were particularly affected. A student's guide to the seashore. In each inlet, an intertidal sampling area of 0.4 km2 was selected, representing seagrass (Papanui Inlet) and unvegetated habitat (Hoopers Inlet).

The colour of this worm varies greatly; it may be pink, red, brown, black or green (3). The findings suggest that the extensive seagrass bed in the mid and low intertidal zones of Papanui Inlet limited lugworm distribution in an otherwise suitable habitat. Liverpool: Liverpool Marine Biology Committee.

Beukema & de Vlas, (1979) suggested a lifespan, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, of at least 5-6 years, and cite a lifespan of at least 6 years in aquaria.

In: Gordon DP (ed) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity, vol 1., Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia Canterbury University Press, Canterbury, pp 312–358, Goerlitz S, Berkenbusch K, Probert PK (2013) Distribution and abundance of Abarenicola affinis (Arenicolidae, Polychaeta) in tidal inlets of Otago, New Zealand. 2006; Berkenbusch and Rowden 2007; Eriksson et al. 2010; Suykerbuyk et al. & Williams, K., 1987. Boalch, G.T., 1979. Wells, G.P., 1949. Micro-organisms (bacteria), benthic diatoms, meiofauna, and detritus. nov. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73, 213-223. The lack of large individuals in a lugworm population may be associated with premature mortality or adult migration into subtidal locations (Lackschewitz and Reise 1998; Reise et al. Occurrence dataset: http://www.ericnortheast.org.uk/home.html accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-38, Fenwick, 2018.

(2004) shows A. pacifica is most closely related to A. claparedi. (ed.)