Although some diapsids have lost either one hole (lizards), or both holes, or have a heavily restructured skull, they are still classified as diapsids based on their ancestry. Hallucicrania is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian epoch to the latest Triassic period of Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. Tangasaurus is an extinct genus of aquatic basal tangasaurid neodiapsid known from the Late Permian period of Tanga, northeastern Tanzania. Eureptilia ("true reptiles") is one of the two major clades of the Sauropsida, the other being Parareptilia. Youngina is an extinct genus of diapsid reptile from the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Red Beds of South Africa. The genus contains only one species, Pappochelys rosinae, from the Middle Triassic of Germany, which was named by paleontologists Rainer Schoch and Hans-Dieter Sues in 2015. It is morphologically intermediate between the definite stem-turtle Odontochelys from the Late Triassic of China and Eunotosaurus, a reptile from the Middle Permian of South Africa. [8][9] Some later cladistic work has used Sauropsida more restrictively, to signify the crown group, i.e. Goodrich in 1916 much like Huxley's, to include lizards, birds and their relatives. [2] Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Eosuchia, Millerosauria, Chelonia (turtles), Squamata[4] (lizards and snakes), Rhynchocephalia, Crocodilia, "thecodonts" (paraphyletic basal Archosauria), non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and sauropyterygians.[5]. Reclassifying reptiles has been among the key aims of phylogenetic nomenclature. Syst. In the Mesozoic Era (from about 250 million years ago to about 66 million years ago), sauropsids were the largest animals on land, in the water, and in the air. The diapsids are extremely diverse, and include all crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tuatara, turtles, and birds. Eosuchia, having become a wastebasket taxon for many probably distantly-related primitive diapsid reptiles ranging from the Late Carboniferous to the Eocene, Romer proposed that it be replaced by Younginiformes. Varanopidae is an extinct family of amniotes that resembled monitor lizards and might have had the same lifestyle, hence their name. Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards, extending from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian. Although traditionally such cladograms were generated largely on the basis of morphological characters, DNA and RNA sequencing data and computational phylogenetics are now very commonly used in the generation of cladograms, either on their own or in combination with morphology. So defined, the group is paraphyletic, excluding endothermic animals like birds and mammals that are descended from early reptiles. It is however doubtful that all anapsids lack temporal fenestra as a primitive trait, and that all the groups traditionally seen as anapsids truly lacked fenestra. Pages 103–155 in Michael J. Benton (ed. The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. Diurnal Birds Of Prey Falconiformes. Goodrich's classification thus differs somewhat from Huxley's, in which the non-mammalian synapsids (or at least the dicynodontians) fell under the sauropsids. Reptiles arose about 310–320 million years ago during the Carboniferous period. Younginidae includes the species Youngina capensis from the Late Permian of South Africa and Thadeosaurus colcanapi from the Late Permian and Early Triassic of Madagascar. ), Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary,, Requests for etymologies in Translingual entries, Entries using missing taxonomic name (family), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Eureptilia—marine Mesozoic organisms o Lothyosaurs purpose-like body design Moved by switching tail from side to die Dorsoventral motion Paddlelike limbs. Huxley, T.H. It contains a single species, Kenyasaurus mariakaniensis. Hypernyms Sauropsids evolved from basal amniotes stock approximately 320 million years ago in the Paleozoic Era. Thus, under the original definition, Sauropsida contained not only the groups usually associated with it today, but also several groups that today are known to be in the mammalian side of the tree. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. (2006). (1876): Lectures on Evolution. [11] All genetic studies have supported the hypothesis that turtles are diapsid reptiles; some have placed turtles within archosauromorphs,[11][12][13][14][15][16] though a few have recovered turtles as lepidosauromorphs instead. Early in the following year he proposed the names Sauropsida and Ichthyopsida for the two latter. Eyes could live in water Active predacious lifestyle Are mollusks, fish turtle, hatchlings Live birth. However, just how terrestrial mesosaur ancestors had become remains uncertain; recent research cannot establish with confidence if the first amniotes were fully terrestrial, or only amphibious. In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. This, and a few related forms, make up the family Younginidae, within the Order Eosuchia. Kenyasaurus is an extinct genus of basal neodiapsid, possibly tangasaurid, known from the Early Triassic period of Coast Province, southeastern Kenya. So defined, Reptilia is identical to Sauropsida. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. ", Muller, J. and Reisz, R.R. Similarly, their affinities are uncertain; they may be either the most basal sauropsids, or among the most basal parareptiles. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it. According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, the Protosauria ("first lizards"), which included some Paleozoic amphibians as well as early reptiles predating the sauropsid/synapsid split (and thus not true sauropsids). Pappochelys is an extinct genus of diapsid reptile closely related to turtles. Eureptilia is characterized by the skull having greatly reduced supraoccipital, tabular, and supratemporal bones that are no longer in contact with the postorbital.